Translation glossary: Islamic art glossary

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AllahThe Arabic word for god. 
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ByzantineEmpire The eastern division of the later Roman empire, dating from the foundation of Constantinople in 330 until its capture by the Ottomans in 1453. 
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CaliphFrom Arabic khalifa, meaning deputy or successor (to the Prophet Muhammad); the title used by early Islamic rulers. 
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Cuerda secaLiterally, \"dry cord,\" a technique of glazing ceramics in which a greasy substance mixed with manganese is used to separate the different colors to 
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FritwareA type of artificially created ceramic body combining silica, glass frit, and fine white clay. 
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HajjThe Arabic term for the pilgrimage to Mecca and the Kacba required of all Muslims. 
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HijraThe emigration of the Prophet and his followers from Mecca to Medina in 622; this event also marked the beginning of the Muslim calendar. 
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IslamArabic word meaning submission (to God) and the name for the religion founded under the leadership of the prophet Muhammad; it also denotes the Muslim 
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KacbaCube-shaped shrine in Mecca (within the central courtyard of the Great Mosque), which is the focal point of Muslim prayer and pilgrimage. 
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LajvardinaFrom the Persian lajvard (lapis lazuli), a type of overglaze-decorated ceramic ware characteristically glazed deep blue. 
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LusterA decorative technique in ceramics in which compounds of silver and copper are applied over the glaze of a previously fired object, which is then refi 
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MihrabPrayer niche in a mosque or other religious structure, emphasizing the direction of prayer. 
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Mina\'iFrom Persian, meaning \"enameled\"; polychrome overglaze-decorated ceramic ware. 
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MongolsA tribe originating in the eastern part of modern-day Mongolia, which in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, under the leadership of Genghis Khan 
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MosqueAny place of Muslim communal worship. 
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MuqarnasStalactite- or honeycomb-like units used as a decorative device in Islamic architecture. 
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MuslimLiterally, \"one who submits\"; someone who adheres to the faith of Islam. 
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QiblaDirection of prayer in Islam, toward Mecca and the Kacba. 
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Qur\'anLiterally, \"recitation\"; the holy book of Islam. 
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SasaniansPre-Islamic dynasty that ruled greater Iran, 224-651. 
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ShahnamaThe Iranian national epic, completed in 1010 by Firdawsi; it tells the stories of the pre-Islamic kings and heroes. 
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ShaykhSpiritual head of the Sufi order, or tribal leader. 
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ShicitesMembers of the heterodox sect of Islam, Shicism, who recognize cAli and his descendants as the rightful successors to the Prophet. 
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SufisIslamic mystics, both Sunni and Shicite. 
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SunnisFollowers of the \"tradition,\" who believe that the Prophet’s successor should be elected; approximately 85 percent of all Muslims are Sunni. 
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TugraImperial monogram of the Ottoman sultans. 
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