Translation glossary: Cartographic Terms

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accuracyDegree of conformity with a standard. Accuracy relates to the quality of a result and is distinguished from precision which relates to the quality of 
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adjustmentProcess designed to remove inconsistencies in measured or computed quantities by applying derived corrections to compensate for random or accidental e 
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adjustment, land- linePositioning land lines on a map to indicate their true, theoretical, or approximate location relative to the adjacent terrain and culture, by reconcil 
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adjustment, standard accuracyAdjustment of a survey resulting in values for positions and (or) elevations that comply with the National Map Accuracy Standards. 
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aerotriangulationThe process of developing a network of horizontal and or vertical positions from a group of known positions using direct or indirect measurements from 
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alidadeInstrument, or part of an instrument , for determining direction , either horizontal or vertical . In its simplest form, a peepsight or telescope moun 
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altimeterInstrument for measuring altitudes or elevations with respect to a reference level, usually mean sea level. The most common type is an aneroid baromet 
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azimuthHorizontal direction reckoned clockwise from the meridian plane. 
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backshorePart of a beach that is usually dry and is reached only by the highest tides; by extension, a narrow strip of relatively flat coast bordering the sea. 
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bathymetryScience of measuring water depths (usually in the ocean) to determine bottom topography. 
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beach (seabeach)Zone of unconsolidated material that extends landward from the low water line to the place where there is marked change in material or physiographic f 
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bench markRelatively permanent material object, natural or artificial, bearing a marked point whose elevation above or below an adopted datum is known. 
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boundary monumentMaterial object placed on or near a boundary line to preserve and identify the location of the boundary line on the ground 
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boundary surveySurvey made to establish or to reestablish a boundary line on the ground, or to obtain data for constructing a map or plat showing a boundary line. 
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cadastral surveySurvey relating to land boundaries, made to create units suitable for title transfer or to define the limitations of title. Derived from \"cadastre\" 
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cartographyScience and art of making maps and charts. The term may be taken broadly as comprising all the steps needed to produce a map: planning, aerial photogr 
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chainUnit of length equal to 66 feet, used especially in the U.S. public land surveys. The original measuring instrument (Gunter\'s chain) was literally a 
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chartSpecial-purpose map designed for navigation or to present specific data or information. The term \"chart\" is applied chiefly to maps made primarily f 
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chart, aeronauticalCharts designed to meet requirements of aerial navigating, produced in several series, each on a specified map projection and differing in scale, form 
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chart, bathymetricSee: map, bathymetric 
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chart, nauticalRepresentation of a portion of the navigable waters of the Earth and adjacent coastal areas on a specified map projection and designed specifically to 
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color separationProcess of preparing a separate drawing, engraving, or negative for each color required in the printing production of a map or chart. 
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compilationPreparation of a new or revised map or chart, or portion thereof, from existing maps, aerial photographs, field surveys, and other sources. 
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continuous toneImage not broken into dots by photographic screen; contains unbroken gradient tones from black to white, and may be either in negative or positive for 
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contourImaginary line on ground, all points of which are at the same elevation above or below a specific datum. 
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contour intervalDifference in elevation between two adjacent contours. 
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control mappingPoints of established position or elevation, or both, which are used to fix references in positioning and correlating map features. Fundamental contro 
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control stationPoint on the ground whose position (horizontal or vertical) is known and can be used as a base for additional survey work. 
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coordinatesLinear and (or) angular quantities that designate the position of a point in relation to a given reference frame. 
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coordinates, origin ofPoints in a system of coordinates which serves as a zero point in computing the system\'s elements or in prescribing its use. 
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cultureFeatures constructed by man that are under, on, or above the ground which are delineated on a map. These include roads, trails, buildings, canals, sew 
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datum (pl. datums)In surveying, a reference system for computing or correlating the results of surveys. There are tow principal types of datums: vertical and horizontal 
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datum, national geodetic verticalSee: national geodetic vertical datum of 1929 
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declinationIn astronomy, the angular distance of a celestial body above (north, plus) or below (south, minus) the celestial Equator. Magnetic declination is the 
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depth curveLine on a map or chart connecting points of equal depth below the datum. 
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diazo processRapid method for copying documents in which the image is developed by exposure to ammonia. 
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dikeBank of earth or stone used to form a barrier, frequently and confusingly interchanged with levee. A dike restrains water within an area that normally 
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electronic distance measuring (EDM) device:Instruments that measure the phase difference between transmitted and reflected or retransmitted electromagnetic waves of known frequency, or that mea 
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elevationVertical distance of a point above or below a reference surface or datum. 
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ER-55 plotterDouble-projection plotting instrument utilizing ellipsoidal reflectors for light projection. 
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erosionGroup of natural processes including weathering, dissolution, abrasion, corrosion, and transportation that remove material from any part of the Earth\ 
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estuaryThat portion of a stream influenced by the tide of the body of water into which it flows; an arm of the sea at a river mouth. 
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feature separationProcess of preparing a separate drawing, engraving, or negative for selected types of data in the preparation of a map or chart. 
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flood control mapSee: map, flood control 
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flood plainBelt of low flat ground bordering a stream channel that is flooded when runoff exceeds the capacity of the stream channel. 
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forestry mapSee: map, forestry 
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formlinesLines, resembling contour lines, drawn to present a conception of the shape of the terrain without regard to a true datum or regular spacing 
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geodesyScience concerned with the measurement and mathematical description of the size and shape of the earth and its gravitational fields. Geodesy also incl 
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geoidFigure of the Earth visualized as a mean sea level surface extended continuously through the continents. It is a theoretically continuous surface that 
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geologic mapSee: map, geologic 
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